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Rising student loan debt is a common barrier for health professionals starting and sustaining a biomedical or biobehavioral research career. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has created the NIH Loan Repayment Programs (LRPs), which will repay up to $100,000 of qualified student loan debt for a 2-year award. The goal of the NIH LRPs is to recruit and retain highly qualified health professionals in research careers by lessening the burden of student loans. Want to know more
It has been pretended by some, (and in England especially,)that inventors have a natural and exclusive right totheir inventions, and not merely for their own lives, butinheritable to their heirs. But while it is a moot questionwhether the origin of any kind of property is derived fromnature at all, it would be singular to admit a natural andeven an hereditary right to inventors. It is agreed by thosewho have seriously considered the subject, that no individualhas, of natural right, a separate property in an acre ofland, for instance. By an universal law, indeed, whatever,whether fixed or movable, belongs to all men equally andin common, is the property for the moment of him whooccupies it, but when he relinquishes the occupation, theproperty goes with it. Stable ownership is the gift of sociallaw, and is given late in the progress of society. It wouldbe curious then, if an idea, the fugitive fermentation of anindividual brain, could, of natural right, be claimed in exclusiveand stable property. If nature has made any onething less susceptible than all others of exclusive property,it is the action of the thinking power called an idea, whichan individual may exclusively possess as long as he keepsit to himself; but the moment it is divulged, it forces itselfinto the possession of every one, and the receiver cannotdispossess himself of it. Its peculiar character, too, is thatno one possesses the less, because every other possesses thewhole of it. He who receives an idea from me, receivesinstruction himself without lessening mine; as he wholights his taper at mine, receives light without darkeningme. That ideas should freely spread from one to anotherover the globe, for the moral and mutual instruction ofman, and improvement of his condition, seems to havebeen peculiarly and benevolently designed by nature,when she made them, like fire, expansible over all space,without lessening their density in any point, and like theair in which we breathe, move, and have our physicalbeing, incapable of confinement or exclusive appropriation.Inventions then cannot, in nature, be a subject ofproperty. Society may give an exclusive right to the profitsarising from them, as an encouragement to men to pursueideas which may produce utility, but this may or may notbe done, according to the will and convenience of the society,without claim or complaint from anybody. Accordingly,it is a fact, as far as I am informed, that Englandwas, until we copied her, the only country on earth whichever, by a general law, gave a legal right to the exclusiveuse of an idea. In some other countries it is sometimesdone, in a great case, and by a special and personal act,but, generally speaking, other nations have thought thatthese monopolies produce more embarrassment than advantageto society; and it may be observed that the nationswhich refuse monopolies of invention, are as fruitful asEngland in new and useful devices.
There are countless programs being conducted by non-profit organizations that may impact the burdens of government, but do not meet the definition of lessening the burden of government. Though such programs have an indirect benefit to the public, and therefore remove the burden of government to support the public, intent and direct lines to the government and government programming is necessary.
Organizations working closely with governments are part of the Facts and Circumstances the IRS will consider as well in reviewing a request for qualifying for exemption as an organ